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Develop of the ABO blood group system in 1900

Updated: Feb 21

Dr. Karl Landsteiner Wikipedia

Was an Austrian biologist, physician, and immunologist. He distinguished the main blood groups in 1900's, having developed the modern system of classification of blood groups from his identification of the presence of agglutinins in the blood, and in 1937 identified, with Alexander S. Wiener, the Rhesus factor, thus enabling physicians to transfuse blood without endangering the patient's life. With Constantin Lividity and Erwin Popper, he discovered the polio virus in 1909. He received the Aronson Prize in 1926. In 1930, he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He was posthumously awarded the Lasker Award in 1946, and has been described as the father of transfusion medicine.

How Blood Type Is Determined And Why You Need To Know

Blood types are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens – substances that can trigger an immune response if they are foreign to the body. Since some antigens can trigger a patient's immune system to attack the transfused blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. Do you know what blood type is safe for you if you need a transfusion?

There are four major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells. In addition to the A and B antigens, there is a protein called the Rh factor, which can be either present (+) or absent (–), creating the 8 most common blood types (A+, A-, B+, B-, O+, O-, AB+, AB-).

Dr. Karl Landsteiner won the Nobel prize in 1900

For the develop the ABO blood group system. The ABO system is the best known method of classifying blood types.

It’s important to know your blood type if you need to receive or give blood. But some research suggests knowing your blood type could also alert you to certain types of autoimmune diseases you may be more likely to develop such as Hashimoto’s disease or rheumatoid arthritis.

Keep reading as we take a deeper look at the connection between blood types and autoimmune diseases.

Blood Types in the U.S.

Blood Type & Rh, how many have it plus Frequency

O RH Positive

1 Person in 3


O RH Negative

1 Person in 15


A RH Positive

1 Person in 3


A RH Negative

1 Person in 16


B RH Positive

1 Person in 12


B RH Negative

1 Person in 67


AB RH Positive

1 Person in 29





AB RH Negative

1 Person in 167


"The rarest blood type is the type that's not available when YOU need it!" Not many human being have it, but this type of blood can be use for anybody in a case of emergency because of the universal blood type group.

What is the connection to autoimmune diseases?

An autoimmune disease is a condition that develops when your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body. It’s still not clear why some people develop autoimmune diseases, but it’s thought that genetics and environmental factors can both play a role.

Some autoimmune conditions, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), are more common in people with a family history of the disease. Research has also found that women are almost twice as likely Trusted Source to develop an autoimmune disease as men.

There’s evidence that some autoimmune diseases are more common in people with certain blood types. However, the results of many studies examining this link have been inconsistent, often due to small sample sizes.

In the following sections, we’ll examine the research findings to date on blood types and their connection to specific autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmune Diseases: Types, Symptoms, Causes

What is an autoimmune disease?

An autoimmune disease is a condition in which your immune system mistakenly attacks your body.

The immune system normally guards against germs like bacteria and viruses. When it senses these foreign invaders, it sends out an army of fighter cells to attack them.

Normally, the immune system can tell the difference between foreign cells and your own cells.

In an autoimmune disease, the immune system mistakes part of your body, like your joints or skin, as foreign. It releases proteins called autoantibodies that attack healthy cells.

Some autoimmune diseases target only one organ. Type 1 diabetes damages the pancreas. Other diseases, like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), affect the whole body.

Why does the immune system attack the body?

Doctors don’t know exactly what causes the immune-system misfire. Yet some people are more likely to get an autoimmune disease than others.

According to a 2014 study, women get autoimmune diseases at a rate of about 2 to 1 compared to men — 6.4 percent of women vs. 2.7 percent of men. Often the disease starts during a woman’s childbearing years (ages 15 to 44).

Some autoimmune diseases are more common in certain ethnic groups. For example, lupus affects more African-American and Hispanic people than Caucasians.

Certain autoimmune diseases, like multiple sclerosis and lupus, run in families. Not every family member will necessarily have the same disease, but they inherit a susceptibility to an autoimmune condition.

Because the incidence of autoimmune diseases is rising, researchers suspect environmental factors like infections and exposure to chemicals or solvents might also be involved.

A “Western diet” is another suspected risk factor for developing an autoimmune disease. Eating high-fat, high-sugar, and highly processed foods is thought to be linked to inflammation, which might set off an immune response. However, this hasn’t been proven.

A 2015 study focused on another theory called the hygiene hypothesis. Because of vaccines and antiseptics, children today aren’t exposed to as many germs as they were in the past. The lack of exposure could make their immune system prone to overreact to harmless substances.

BOTTOM LINE: Researchers don’t know exactly what causes autoimmune diseases. Genetics, diet, infections, and exposure to chemicals might be involved.

Results returned for blood type studies 2022from all of Also try: blood type studies 2020, blood type studies 2012

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14 common autoimmune diseases There are more than 80 different autoimmune diseases. Here are 14 of the most common ones. 1. Type 1 diabetes The pancreas produces the hormone insulin, which helps regulate blood sugar levels. In type 1 diabetes mellitus, the immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. High blood sugar results can lead to damage in the blood vessels, as well as organs like the heart, kidneys, eyes, and nerves. 2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the immune system attacks the joints. This attack causes redness, warmth, soreness, and stiffness in the joints. Unlike osteoarthritis, which commonly affects people as they get older, RA can start as early as your 30s or sooner. 3. Psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis Skin cells normally grow and then shed when they’re no longer needed. Psoriasis causes skin cells to multiply too quickly. The extra cells build up and form inflamed red patches, commonly with silver-white scales of plaque on the skin. Up to 30 percent of people with psoriasis also develop swelling, stiffness, and pain in their joints. This form of the disease is called psoriatic arthritis. 4. Multiple sclerosis Multiple sclerosis (MS) damages the myelin sheath, the protective coating that surrounds nerve cells, in your central nervous system. Damage to the myelin sheath slows the transmission speed of messages between your brain and spinal cord to and from the rest of your body. This damage can lead to symptoms like numbness, weakness, balance issues, and trouble walking. The disease comes in several forms that progress at different rates. According to a 2012 study Trusted Source, about 50 percent of people with MS need help walking within 15 years after the disease starts. 5. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Although doctors in the 1800s first described lupus as a skin disease because of the rash it commonly produces, the systemic form, which is most the common, actually affects many organs, including the joints, kidneys, brain, and heart. Joint pain, fatigue, and rashes are among the most common symptoms. 6. Inflammatory bowel disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a term used to describe conditions that cause inflammation in the lining of the intestinal wall. Each type of IBD affects a different part of the GI tract.

  • Crohn’s disease can inflame any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus.

  • Ulcerative colitis affects only the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

7. Addison’s disease Addison’s disease affects the adrenal glands, which produce the hormones cortisol and aldosterone as well as androgen hormones. Having too little of cortisol can affect the way the body uses and stores carbohydrates and sugar (glucose). Deficiency of aldosterone will lead to sodium loss and excess potassium in the bloodstream. Symptoms include weakness, fatigue, weight loss, and low blood sugar. 8. Graves’ disease Graves’ disease attacks the thyroid gland in the neck, causing it to produce too much of its hormones. Thyroid hormones control the body’s energy usage, known as metabolism. Having too much of these hormones revs up your body’s activities, causing symptoms like nervousness, a fast heartbeat, heat intolerance, and weight loss. One potential symptom of this disease is bulging eyes, called exophthalmos. It can occur as a part of what is called Graves’ ophthalmopathy, which occurs in around 30 percent of those who have Graves’ disease, according to a 1993 study Trusted Source. 9. Sjogren's syndrome This condition attacks the glands that provide lubrication to the eyes and mouth. The hallmark symptoms of Sjögren’s syndrome are dry eyes and dry mouth, but it may also affect the joints or skin. 10. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, thyroid hormone production slows to a deficiency. Symptoms include weight gain, sensitivity to cold, fatigue, hair loss, and swelling of the thyroid (goiter). 11. Myasthenia gravis Myasthenia gravis affects nerve impulses that help the brain control the muscles. When the communication from nerves to muscles is impaired, signals can’t direct the muscles to contract. The most common symptom is muscle weakness that gets worse with activity and improves with rest. Often muscles that control eye movements, eyelid opening, swallowing, and facial movements are involved. 12. Autoimmune vasculitis Autoimmune vasculitis happens when the immune system attacks blood vessels. The inflammation that results narrows the arteries and veins, allowing less blood to flow through them. 13. Pernicious anemia This condition causes deficiency of a protein, made by stomach lining cells, known as intrinsic factor that is needed in order for the small intestine to absorb vitamin B-12 from food. Without enough of this vitamin, one will develop an anemia, and the body’s ability for proper DNA synthesis will be altered. Pernicious anemia is more common in older adults. According to a 2012 study, it affects 0.1 percent of people in general, but nearly 2 percent of people over age 60. 14. Celiac disease People with celiac disease can’t eat foods containing gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and other grain products. When gluten is in the small intestine, the immune system attacks this part of the gastrointestinal tract and causes inflammation. A 2015 study Trusted Source noted that celiac disease affects about 1 percent of people in the United States. A larger number of people have reported gluten sensitivity, which isn’t an autoimmune disease, but can have similar symptoms like diarrhea and abdominal pain.

Autoimmune disease symptoms The early symptoms of many autoimmune diseases are very similar, such as:

  • fatigue

  • achy muscles

  • swelling and redness

  • low-grade fever

  • trouble concentrating

  • numbness and tingling in the hands and feet

  • hair loss

  • skin rashes

Individual diseases can also have their own unique symptoms. For example, type 1 diabetes causes extreme thirst, weight loss, and fatigue. IBD causes belly pain, bloating, and diarrhea. With autoimmune diseases like psoriasis or RA, symptoms may come and go. A period of symptoms is called a flare-up. A period when the symptoms go away is called remission. BOTTOM LINE: Symptoms like fatigue, muscle aches, swelling, and redness could be signs of an autoimmune disease. Symptoms might come and go over time.

Why are there different blood types?

Your blood type is determined by a type of protein found on your red blood cells called antigens. Depending on the type of antigens you have, your blood type is classified as:

  • Type A: blood containing A antigens

  • Type B: blood containing B antigens

  • Type AB: blood containing A and B antigens

  • Type O: blood containing neither A nor B antigens

You’ve likely also heard of blood types referred to as “positive” or “negative.” This part of your blood type is determined based on the presence of another antigen called Rh factor.

People with a positive blood type (Rh+) have the antigen on the surface of their red blood cells, and people with a negative blood type (Rh-) do not.

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